Stone knowledge

How can we not understand the materials in the study of construction drawing design? As an important material of landscape hardscape pavement, stone materials must be understood. This paper introduces the variety, surface course and size of common landscape stone... All you want to know is in it!

I. classification of natural stone

The common natural stone materials in the landscape are granite, marble, sandstone, slate, etc.

1. Natural granite

Granite is hard, wear-resistant, pressure resistant, fire-resistant, acid resistant, alkali resistant and corrosive gas resistant. Most of them only have color spots, others are solid colors, with small pattern changes, strong collability and wide range of use.


A. common domestic granites can be divided into six series, i.e. red, black, green, gray, white and yellow. Among them, the good designs are listed as follows:

(1) red series: Hetang red (peach blossom red), tomato red, Luoyuan red and shrimp red in Fujian; Sichuan Red and China red in Sichuan; Cenxi red and Sanbao red in Guangxi; Guifei red and orange red in Lingqiu, Shanxi; Rushan red, Jiangjun red, Taishan red, Shidao red and Shiliuhong in Shandong; Yangjiang red in Guangdong; Xinjiang red (Tianshan red) in Xinjiang; Fengye red and Guilin Red in Guangxi; Taiwan red and so on.


(2) black series: sesame black, Fuding black and Xuanwu black in Fujian; Black King Kong, Mongolian black and fish scale black in Inner Mongolia; Jinan green in Shandong; China black in Hebei, etc.


(3) green series: Tai'an green and Gaoming green in Shandong Province; bean green, light green and chrysanthemum green in Jiangxi Province; green flowers in Suxian County, Anhui Province; Zhejiang and Sichuan green and forest green in Henan Province.


(4) grey series: Sesame grey and Pearl grey in Fujian; Lu grey and Zhangqiu grey in Shandong; Taiwan grey in Taiwan, etc.


(5) white series: Fujian sesame white; Hubei White; Shandong white; Jiangxi pearl white, etc.


(6) yellow series: rust stone in Fujian; karamaili gold in Xinjiang; chrysanthemum yellow in Shanxi; pearl jute in Hubei; golden jute in Laizhou, Shandong, etc.


B. common imported granite:

Saudi Arabia: Gold Diamond, jeddahong;

South Africa: South African red, etc.

Brazil: mirage green, dark green hemp, daughter red, coral red, etc.

India: Black Sands, Kashmir Gold, crimson, Indian red, Indian gold, etc.

America: American grey hemp, American white hemp, etc.

UK: UK brown, etc.


2. Natural marble

Marble originally refers to the white limestone with black pattern produced in Dali, Yunnan Province. The section can form a natural ink landscape painting. In ancient times, marble with formed patterns was often used to make painting screens or inlays. Later, the name marble gradually developed into the name of all kinds of limestone with various colors and patterns used to make building decoration materials. White marble is generally called white marble. Natural marble is fine, solid and burnable, with a wide variety of colors. It is made of beautiful natural colors, and its hardness is smaller than granite, but it is less used outdoors because it is not resistant to weathering.


3. Sandstone

Sandstone is a kind of sedimentary rock, which is mainly composed of sand and glue. Most of sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar. The sandstone has strong grain, wavy texture on the surface, soft and delicate texture. The color can be any color like sand, the most common is brown, yellow, red, gray and white. Sandstone pores have high water absorption, easy to absorb dirt, easy to breed microorganisms, low hardness and brittleness of the material, and the pavement is used with caution, which is usually suitable for facade decoration.


4, slate

Slate is a kind of metamorphic rock with plate structure and no recrystallization. The original rock is argillaceous, silty or neutral tuff, which can be peeled into thin sections along the direction of foliation. The color of slate varies with the impurities it contains. Those containing iron are red or yellow; those containing carbon are black or gray; those containing calcium blister when meeting hydrochloric acid, so they are generally named after their color, such as green slate, black slate and calcareous slate. The hardness of slate is better than sandstone but lower than granite. Generally applicable to facade decoration and small area sidewalk pavement.


II. Surface of natural stone

1. Burnt noodles

The surface is rough. When the stone is heated at high temperature, the crystal bursts and cooled rapidly to form a rough burning surface. It is the most common type of facing material for granite and the most commonly used facing material for paving in landscape design.


2. Polished surface

The surface is very smooth, highly polished, with a high gloss mirror effect. Granite, marble and limestone usually contain natural crystals, which are polished to reflect light and make the stone surface shiny, but different maintenance methods are needed to maintain its luster.


3. Matte surface

The specular gloss of stone is very low, generally lower than 10 degrees.


4. Natural surface

The natural surface is rough, but not as rough as fire. Generally speaking, the natural surface stone refers to the natural formed surface without any treatment, which is the natural formed surface in the stone, such as slate foliation, granite joints and so on. But in the market, the natural surface refers to the natural undulating surface formed by splitting and knocking, so it is also called natural splitting surface or splitting natural surface.


5. Chop axe noodles (chop fake noodles)

It is also called longan surface or cut fake surface. It is made by chopping and hammering on the stone surface with an axe to form a very dense strip texture. Some of the effects are like longan skin. You can choose the roughness degree, which is commonly used in Chinese garden.


6. Litchi noodles

The surface is rough and uneven. It is a kind of effect that the chisel is used to chisel the small holes on the surface and imitate the water drops on the stone over the years.


7. Machine section

It is directly cut and shaped by disc saw, sand saw or bridge cutting machine, with rough surface and obvious machine cutting lines.


8. Mushroom noodles

Generally, artificial chiseling is used, the effect is similar to that of natural chiseling, but the stone's surface is in the shape of plateau around the middle protuberance.


9. Pineapple noodles

Stone pineapple surface is more uneven than litchi surface, just like pineapple skin.


10. Drawing surface

Stone drawing surface is also called machine planed surface. It is a special processing technology of stone to open a certain depth and width groove on the stone surface, which can play a special texture of anti-skid and texture.


III. application form of natural stone in landscape

1. The interior and exterior finishing materials shall not bear any mechanical load.


2. Materials for retaining walls, stone barges, chairs, benches, pavements and steps that bear certain loads shall have good weather resistance and physical and mechanical properties.


3. Large scale monuments, towers, columns, sculptures, nameplates, solitary stones and other landscape stones bearing their own weight


IV. common sizes of natural stone

1. Standard size of general decorative board:

300mm * 300mm; 300mm * 600mm; 600mm * 600mm; 600mm * 900mm; 900mm * 900mm

Elastic Street Stone: generally, the size of elastic Street stone is about 100 mm * 100 mm * 100 mm. The top surface of elastic Street stone is square. If the elastic Street stone is paved on the sidewalk, the thickness can be reduced to 50 mm. If it is used as a facing, the thickness is 20 mm or even less.

Flat stone: according to the design size

Mushroom stone: 1000mm ~ 1200mm (length) × 500mm ~ 600mm (width) × 100mm ~ 130mm (thickness)

Rough stone slab: 1000mm ~ 1200mm (length) × 500mm ~ 600mm (width) × 30mm (thickness)

2. Common thickness of general plate

The thickness of the thin plate is 10 mm, generally 20 mm, the thickness of the curtain wall hanging is 30 mm, the thickness of the mushroom stone paving stone is 30 mm ~ 50 mm, the thickness of the deck decorative plate is more than 50 mm, and the thickness of the common composite plate is 20 mm, including the thickness of the surface material (marble, granite) 3 mm, and the thickness of the bottom plate (stone, ceramic tile, aluminum honeycomb plate) 17 mm.

V. later cleaning and maintenance of natural stone

The pollution caused by deep processing, mining and transportation of natural stone and the influence of environmental factors will produce a lot of pathological changes, which need to be cleaned and polished to restore its value and beauty.


1. Do not contact materials with strong acid and alkali

For example, acid often causes oxidation of pyrite minerals in granite, resulting in yellowing (oxidation of divalent iron to trivalent iron). Acid will decompose calcium carbonate contained in marble, convert it into calcium bicarbonate, resulting in surface erosion; alkali will also erode the grain boundary of feldspar and quartz silicide crystal in granite, resulting in grain stripping. Therefore, acid and alkali materials are the primary cause of damage to the stone mirror.

2. Do not wax

There are many kinds of wax on the market, including water-based wax, stearate wax, oil-based wax, acrylic wax and so on. These waxes are based on acid-base materials. It will not only block the pores of the stone breath, but also touch the dirt to form wax scale, which will cause the stone surface to turn yellow. However, if waxing is necessary for pedestrians and goods with high frequency of circulation, it is necessary to consult the leader of the professional self-care company for waxing and self-care.

3. Do not use non neutral detergent randomly.

In order to achieve quick cleaning, the general cleaners contain acid and alkali, so if the cleaners with unknown ingredients are used for a long time, the luster of the stone surface will be lost, and the residue of non neutral agents will also be the main cause of stone lesions in the future.

4. Do not cover carpet and sundries for a long time

In order to keep the stone breathing smoothly, it is necessary to avoid covering the carpet and sundries on the stone surface for a long time, otherwise, the moisture under the stone will not volatilize through the pores of the stone. Stone will be too heavy due to moisture, moisture content increased and annoying stone lesions, such as must lay carpet, pile debris, please do not forget to change.

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